Reasons and Persons

Reasons and Persons


  • Author: Derek Parfit
  • Release Date : 1986-01-23
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • File Size: 10678832 Bytes


This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moral philosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future....

Against Empathy
Score: 4
From 12 Ratings

Against Empathy


  • Author: Paul Bloom
  • Release Date : 2016-12-06
  • Genre: Psychology
  • File Size: 1788273 Bytes


New York Post Best Book of 2016We often think of our capacity to experience the suffering of others as the ultimate source of goodness. Many of our wisest policy-makers, activists, scientists, and philosophers agree that the only problem with empathy is that we don’t have enough of it.Nothing could be farther from the truth, argues Yale researcher Paul Bloom. In AGAINST EMPATHY, Bloom reveals empathy to be one of the leading motivators of inequality and immorality in society. Far from helping us to improve the lives of others, empathy is a capricious and irrational emotion that appeals to our narrow prejudices. It muddles our judgment and, ironically, often leads to cruelty. We are at our best when we are smart enough not to rely on it, but to draw...

Reasons and Persons
Score: 5
From 2 Ratings

Reasons and Persons


  • Author : Derek Parfit
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release Date : 1986-01-23
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9780191622441


Reasons and Persons Book Description :

This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moral philosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future....

Derek Parfit s Reasons and Persons

Derek Parfit s Reasons and Persons


  • Author : Andrea Sauchelli
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date : 2020
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 0429488459


Derek Parfit s Reasons and Persons Book Description :

"Derek Parfit (1942-2017) is widely considered to be one of the most important moral philosophers of the Twentieth Century. Reasons and Persons is arguably the most influential of the two books published in his lifetime and hailed as a classic work of ethics and personal identity. Derek Parfit's Reasons and Persons: An Introduction and Critical Inquiry is an outstanding introduction to and assessment of Parfit's book, with chapters by leading scholars of ethics, metaphysics and of Parfit's work. Part One provides a much-needed introduction to key topics and themes in Reasons and Persons that will be useful for those new to Parfit's complex work. These include Parfit's idea of self-defeating theories, rationality and time, personal identity, future ge...

On What Matters

On What Matters


  • Author : Derek Parfit
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2017-01-19
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9780198778608


On What Matters Book Description :

Derek Parfit presents the third volume of On What Matters, his landmark work of moral philosophy. Parfit develops further his influential treatment of reasons, normativity, the meaning of moral discourse, and the status of morality. He engages with his critics, and shows the way to resolution of their differences. This volume is partly about what it is for things to matter, in the sense that we all have reasons to care about these things. Much of the book discusses three of the main kinds of meta-ethical theory: Normative Naturalism, Quasi-Realist Expressivism, and Non-Metaphysical Non-Naturalism, which Derek Parfit now calls Non-Realist Cognitivism. This third theory claims that, if we use the word 'reality' in an ontologically weighty sense, irredu...

Does Anything Really Matter

Does Anything Really Matter


  • Author : Peter Singer
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2017-01-12
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9780191084393


Does Anything Really Matter Book Description :

In the first two volumes of On What Matters Derek Parfit argues that there are objective moral truths, and other normative truths about what we have reasons to believe, and to want, and to do. He thus challenges a view of the role of reason in action that can be traced back to David Hume, and is widely assumed to be correct, not only by philosophers but also by economists. In defending his view, Parfit argues that if there are no objective normative truths, nihilism follows, and nothing matters. He criticizes, often forcefully, many leading contemporary philosophers working on the nature of ethics, including Simon Blackburn, Stephen Darwall, Allen Gibbard, Frank Jackson, Peter Railton, Mark Schroeder, Michael Smith, and Sharon Street. Does Anything R...

Reasons Without Persons

Reasons Without Persons


  • Author : Brian Hedden
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release Date : 2015
  • Genre: Identity (Philosophical concept)
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9780198732594


Reasons Without Persons Book Description :

Brian Hedden defends a radical view about the relationship between rationality, personal identity, and time. On the standard view, personal identity over time plays a central role in thinking about rationality, because there are rational norms for how a person's attitudes and actions at one time should fit with her attitudes and actions at other times. But these norms are problematic. They make what you rationally ought to believe or do depend on facts about yourpast that aren't part of your current perspective on the world, and they make rationality depend on controversial, murky metaphysical facts about what binds different instantaneous snapshots (or'time-slices') into a single person extended in time. Hedden takes a different approach, treating t...

Determined by Reasons

Determined by Reasons


  • Author : Susanne Mantel
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2018-02-19
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9781351186339


Determined by Reasons Book Description :

This book offers a new account of what it is to act for a normative reason. The first part of the book introduces some popular ideas and problems concerning causal and dispositional approaches of acting for reasons. The author argues that the dispositional approach should take a certain form that unites epistemic, volitional, and executional dispositions in a complex normative competence. This "Normative Competence Account" allows for more and less reflective ways of acting for normative reasons. The second part of the book clarifies the relation between the normative reason that an agent acts for and his or her motivating reasons. The chapters in this part refute the widely held "identity view" that acting for a normative reason requires the normati...

How Adam Smith Can Change Your Life
Score: 4
From 3 Ratings

How Adam Smith Can Change Your Life


  • Author : Russ Roberts
  • Publisher : Portfolio Trade
  • Release Date : 2015-10-13
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9781591847953


How Adam Smith Can Change Your Life Book Description :

"How the insights of an 18th century economist can help us live better in the 21st century. Adam Smith became famous for The Wealth of Nations, but the Scottish economist also cared deeply about our moral choices and behavior--the subjects of his other brilliant book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759). Now, economist Russ Roberts shows why Smith's neglected work might be the greatest self-help book you've never read. Roberts explores Smith's unique and fascinating approach to fundamental questions such as: - What is the deepest source of human satisfaction? - Why do we sometimes swing between selfishness and altruism? - What's the connection between morality and happiness? Drawing on current events, literature, history, and pop culture, Roberts o...

The Infidel and the Professor

The Infidel and the Professor


  • Author : Dennis C. Rasmussen
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release Date : 2019-06-04
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9780691192284


The Infidel and the Professor Book Description :

The story of the greatest of all philosophical friendships—and how it influenced modern thought David Hume is arguably the most important philosopher ever to have written in English, but during his lifetime he was attacked as “the Great Infidel” for his religious skepticism and deemed unfit to teach the young. In contrast, Adam Smith, now hailed as the founding father of capitalism, was a revered professor of moral philosophy. Remarkably, Hume and Smith were best friends, sharing what Dennis Rasmussen calls the greatest of all philosophical friendships. The Infidel and the Professor tells the fascinating story of the close relationship between these towering Enlightenment thinkers—and how it influenced their world-changing ideas. It shows tha...

What We Owe to Each Other
Score: 4
From 1 Ratings

What We Owe to Each Other


  • Author : Thomas Scanlon
  • Publisher : Belknap Press
  • Release Date : 2000
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : 9780674004238


What We Owe to Each Other Book Description :

How do we judge whether an action is morally right or wrong? If an action is wrong, what reason does that give us not to do it? Why should we give such reasons priority over our other concerns and values? In this book, T. M. Scanlon offers new answers to these questions, as they apply to the central part of morality that concerns what we owe to each other. According to his contractualist view, thinking about right and wrong is thinking about what we do in terms that could be justified to others and that they could not reasonably reject. He shows how the special authority of conclusions about right and wrong arises from the value of being related to others in this way, and he shows how familiar moral ideas such as fairness and responsibility can be un...

Ethical Studies

Ethical Studies


  • Author : Francis Herbert Bradley
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date : 1876
  • Genre: Ethics
  • Pages :
  • ISBN 10 : STANFORD:36105002094899


Ethical Studies Book Description :

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